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Area of Application

Modules and Process Workflow

Detailed Specifications

Possible Workflows


Images of central projection


Satellite scanner image blocks


Block of ADS40/80/100 Images

Source Image Types and Formats

Supported Coordinate Systems

Input Data

Output Products and Data Exchange Formats

Modules Functionality

Resource System

Hardware Requirements

Delivery Set


Documentation on-line


Images of central projection

Central projection images can be obtained either by analog or digital cameras and loaded as a block of images to the PHOTOMOD system. Some features of image processing are specific to the type of camera used. When working with central projection images, the PHOTOMOD project type is “central projection,” regardless, whether a single image or blocks of images are being processed.

Block of central projection images

Main workflow usually includes:

Step 1: Create profile for project resource location using — PHOTOMOD Control Panel

Local or network profile assigns profile name and defines structure.

Step 2: Prepare images with — PHOTOMOD Raster Converter

  • Scan film if using an analog camera
  • If using non-photogrammetric scanner images, convert with ScanCorrect software
  • Image conversion to PHOTOMOD format is performed by the Raster Converter, which also provides radiometric correction and compression* options.

* Images conversion is also available directly when loading images to PHOTOMOD projects (step 3).

Step 3: Project creation and block formation using — PHOTOMOD Core

  • Assign project name, position project in the profile resources, and determine project type — central projection, coordinate system and terrain Z-range
  • Form block by adding images
  • Enter camera parameters

Step 4: Aerial triangulation — PHOTOMOD AT

  • Interior orientation measure fiducial marks for film camera in automatic or semi-automatic mode*
  • Measure ground control points and enter coordinate values
  • Relative orientation measure tie points over the block of images**

* Digital camera interior orientation (axis orientation) is available in PHOTOMOD Core.

** If an image’s exterior orientation parameters (EO) are known within an acceptable degree of accuracy, (as provided by precise on-board GPS/IMU systems or third-party bundle adjustment software), the AT/Solver stage can be excluded from the workflow. In this event, simply load EO parameters (“Direct georeferencing”) and start stereoprocessing or orthorectification (step 6). If EO accuracy is insufficient for direct georeferencing, exterior orientation parameters may still prove quite helpful in creating block layout before starting automatic tie point measurements. EO parameter import is available in PHOTOMOD Core.

Step 5: Block adjustment — PHOTOMOD SolverA (central projection)

Block adjustment through independent models or bundle adjustment algorithm. Filters erroneous measurements

Step 6: Block processing — output product determines modules required

  • DTM creation (PHOTOMOD DTM)

    Creates pre-regions denoting areas of interest for DTM building on each stereopair.

    Create basic 3D vector layers to be used for DTM creation in automatic (picket) or manual (breakline) mode. Breaklines are used to precisely describe linear objects like ridges, thalwegs, and embankments. Connect breaklines along pre-region borders.

    Build regular Digital Elevation Models (DEM) from TIN or vector pickets. Accuracy control. Import/export and merge DEMs.

    Build “smooth” contour lines with a pre-defined Z-interval from TIN or DEM.

    Build pickets with DEM

    Output products: TIN, DEM, contour lines, 3D vector objects.
    Output formats available — see Output formats specification.

    Note. Export/Import of vector objects without classifier and import/export of DEM are available in PHOTOMOD Core.

  • Orthomosaics creation (PHOTOMOD Mosaic)

    Orthorectification using DTM created in PHOTOMOD or externally.

    Load images and indicate regions of interest using the built-in cutline editor.

    With the appropriate DTM, it is possible to create a united orthomosaic for several projects.

    Automatic adjustment and equalization of brightness and contrast (global and local).

    After the completion of specified preparatory operations, the orthomosaic can be created automatically without need of operator interaction.

    Orthoimages can be split into sheets of any given shape during the process of mosaic creation.

    A set of orthorectification settings can be saved as a separate Mosaic project, thus making it possible to build mosaic sheets on several workstations in distributed processing mode.

    Output products: orthomosaic.
    Output formats available — see Output formats specification.

Step 7: Digital mapping is perfomed in the StereoDraw, GIS Panorama 2011 Mini or StereoVectOr module, depending on the specific task.

The StereoDraw module is intended for digital mapping in stereo mode. Vectorization can be performed either on a separate stereopair or on a set of stereopairs, which are automatically accessed for plotting objects. Plotted objects are associated with records in Classifier. Moreover, unique attributes can be assigned to each object. The resultant vector file can then be exported to several GIS systems via a wide range of exchange formats. SteroDraw also includes a 3Dmod program to prepare special 3D objects for export to DXF format for 3D modeling.

The GIS Panorama 2011 Mini is a full-scale GIS. DTMs from stage 5, orthomosaics from stage 6, and also a range of external data can be used as input. For more details, see GIS Panorama 2011 Mini functionality. GIS Panorama 2011 Mini does not have stereo vectorization functionality.

It is generally recommended that the StereoVectOr module be used, if final processing of the map is planned for GIS Panorama 2011 Mini or Professional GIS Map 2011. Otherwise, use of the StereoDraw module is preferred.

Output products: digital map
Output formats available — see Output format specification.

Single central projection image

A single airborne image can be used for orthorectification and digital mapping in GIS Panorama 2011 Mini, if an “external” DTM is available. External DTMs may include, for instance, those obtained from field study, map digitalization or by import from supported formats.

Output products: orthoimage
Output formats available — see Output format specification.

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Last modified: 15.04.2019© Racurs, 2004-2019